Not attending the RAPID + TCT conference? At these educational sessions just off of the show floor, you’ll have the opportunity to hear from industry experts on the latest applications, processes, and research in additive manufacturing. Presentations are labeled novice, intermediate, and expert, allowing you to maximize your time and attend the presentations that best fit your needs and skill level. Presentations are complimentary for all RAPID + TCT attendees.
Wednesday, April 25, 2018
10:30 AM – 10:55 AM
AM Material and Process Developments (Intermediate)
Powder development is essential and often underrated in any material development for Additive Manufacturing processes. An overview of important powder characteristics is presented including an example from an aging study with Ni based powder alloy. Projects presented would include external collaboration with development partners. The adoption of the AM technology depends not only on having processes to develop more traditional alloys but also to develop Additive Manufacturing specific alloys. It has to be realized that the Additive Manufacturing process is unique in its characteristics and the available alloy systems were developed for this process. Few new material systems exist taking full advantage of the AM process capabilities. A new class of materials – MMCs (metal matrix composites) is now possible through his technology. Through these projects and capabilities, a complete solution is available for customers not only wanting to qualify existing materials but also develop new materials for the AM process.
- Understand basics of powder parameters
- Learn capabilities of the process and to leverage them to develop new materials
- Demonstrate how to provide a custom solution with custom materials
Manager R&D/Applications Development
EOS North America
11:00 AM – 11:25 AM
Fully Dense Metal Matrix Composites with Uniform Distribution of Reinforcement Particles (Intermediate)
Refractory metals and ceramics in a matrix offer several advantages in part performance, including improved strength-to-weight ratio, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient, acoustic signature customization, and increased wear resistance. Additive Manufacturing (AM) of metal matrix composites (MMCs) offers the advantages of AM with additional advantages of MMCs. Additive Friction Stir (AFS), a novel solid-state technology, was used to fabricate a variety of MMCs. Using 6061 aluminum and SiC powders in a continuous dual powder feed system, AlSiC materials with varying volume fractions (up to 30%) of SiC were created. Preliminary examination shows that the AFS deposited materials are fully dense and defect free with uniform distribution of reinforcement particles. The detail microstructure, hardness and tensile property will be reviewed to identify the particle distribution and mechanical performance of the AFS processed materials. In this presentation, additional MMCs fabricated with the AFS process will be evaluated including AlMo, AlFe, and AlW.
The AFS process is a new method for AM, repair, coatings, and joining of metals and metal matrix composites. It is unique in that it is solid-state, meaning there is no melting of materials. Since AFS is a solid-state process the residual stress formed in the deposited components is much less than the residual stresses developed during casting or other manufacturing processes that involve melting and solidification. Fully dense materials with wrought properties are produced with high deposition rates in open atmosphere machines allowing for very large part creation.
- Outline the possible advantages of additive manufacturing of fully dense, well dispersed metal matrix composites.
- Compare the mechanical performance of select metal matrix composites to base alloys.
- Contrast the pros and cons of solid-state additive manufacturing of metal matrix composites against other processes.
Additive Manufacturing Manager
11:30 AM – 11:55 AM
Ni-Base Super-Alloy Design for Additive Manufacturing (Intermediate)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is rapidly infiltrating the manufacturing community as a method of processing net-shape parts and components. AM provides the unique ability to build complex part geometries, especially of importance to the aerospace industry. The benefits of AM to aerospace is two-fold as new shapes and forms become available and material waste of expensive alloys is drastically reduced, thus providing higher temperature, light-weighting, and cost advantages. Unfortunately, many alloys of great interest for high temperature and extreme environments (e.g. Mar-M-247) show cracking and defects when processed by AM due to their low weldability. This work will describe alloy modifications to mitigate these issues, characterization of modified alloy powders within the Ni-base superalloy family produced in-house via high pressure gas atomization, and AM builds produced from these modified powders. This work was performed in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy – Advanced Manufacturing Office.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the important considerations when modifying a traditional alloy to enable its use in additive manufacturing.
- Describe the additive manufacturing of Ni-base superalloys and important processing considerations.
- Appreciate the potential impact of alloy design for additive manufacturing.
Ames Laboratory of USDOE
12:00 PM – 12:25 PM
Development of Haynes®230® with Optimized Chemistry and Superior Mechanical Properties for Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processes (Expert)
Haynes®230® alloy is a solid solution strengthened nickel-based superalloy with excellent high temperature strength, resistance to oxidizing and nitriding atmospheres for prolonged exposures up to 2100°F and long term thermal stability, making it an ideal candidate for combustion components in industrial gas turbines and nuclear reactors. The alloy has traditionally been produced as cast or wrought material.
Additive manufacturing processes, such as laser powder bed fusion processes (LPBF) enables the production of complex near-net-shaped parts, especially for difficult to machine nickel based alloys like Haynes®230®. However, standard alloy chemistry has proved to be unsuitable to be processed by LPBFs. Rapid solidification of melt pool produces undesirable metastable microstructural phases resulting in cracks, porosities and non-bonding of layers in samples.
An optimized alloy chemistry was developed, through integrated computational materials engineering approach and systematic alloying additions. Approach was to design a chemistry to minimize deleterious metastable phases in printed parts. Several experimental chemistries were produced and an extensive design of experiment were performed to print samples and obtain optimized print parameter combinations to produce fully dense crack-free samples. Heat treatment optimization was performed and room temperature and elevated temperature mechanical and corrosion property evaluations were performed. Optical and scanning electron microscope were used to fully characterize the powder and printed materials microstructure.
Characterization and mechanical property results, data to be presented, validated the suitability of optimized chemistry for LPBF processes. Mechanical properties of parts were comparable to the AMS standard and improved compared to cast and wrought counterparts.
- Learn about the new Haynes 230 alloy developed for Laser Powder Bed Fusion processes.
- Develop an understanding of alloy development for Laser based additive manufacturing processes
Senior Research Engineer AM R&D
Manager AM R&D
12:30 PM – 12:55 PM
Functionalizing Structures via Aerosol Jet 3D Printed Electronics
Structural Electronics is emerging as a new way of adding intelligence into products such as automobiles, turbine engines, medical devices, and building infrastructure. These functions can be used to sense, report on, and take or recommend corrective actions when products are deviating from their specifications. Optomec Aerosol Jet printers deliver the unique ability to print electronic and other materials onto any type of 2D and 3D structure, in dimensions ranging from 10 microns up to centimeters in scale. Aerosol Jet 3D printed electronics solutions have been deployed to add intelligence to products enabling continuous monitoring and feedback. This added functionality facilitates just-in-time corrective action helping to insure steady state operation of the functionalized products. Real world examples will be presented including printed creep sensors on turbine blades to monitor metal fatigue; printed temperature sensors onto catheters to insure proper operation of critical arterial ablation procedures; printed strain sensor on rotary shafts providing instantaneous feedback on torque related issues; and printed gas sensors on well-heads for detecting excess methane leakage.
- Understand the benefits of structural electronics.
- Understand how structural electronics are finding their way into high value products.
- Better understand the value of structural electronics as it relates to the products they manufacture.
Aerosol Jet Product Manager
1:00 PM – 1:25 PM
Machine Learning in Additive Manufacturing (Intermediate)
Data from additive manufacturing systems is a desperately underutilized resource that can help make the process faster and more reliable. Take the simple case of CAD file analysis.
Rapid CAD analysis is critical for a number of processes in additive manufacturing, including quoting, simulation and printability analysis. This assessment often requires detailed estimation of print time, material usage, and the like. Until now we have relied on toolpath generation to deliver accurate estimates for these statistics. However, slicing engines are resource and time intensive, and often inaccurate.
With the advances in data analysis and improved algorithms for the same, there is an opportunity to use the abundance of data received from additive manufacturing devices. By capturing and interpreting the data, we compared the performance of regression algorithms to the various slicing engine output. We found that the real-time analysis of print data and continuous data learning process can minimize wait times, improve estimate accuracy, reduce resource requirements and allow for analysis of a greater range of CAD models.
Many opportunities to pragmatically leverage data to make the additive manufacturing process more efficient. In addition to highlighting the above case study, this session will help attendees identify other such opportunities and how to start capturing them.
- What kind of data users can expect to export from their devices, what it might be used for, and how to start accessing it.
- How data analysis of historical data from additive manufacturing devices can help make estimates and processes faster, more accurate and less resource intensive.
- First steps to take in unlocking data, identifying use cases and deploying solutions.
1:30 PM – 1:55 PM
Metal Additive Manufacturing Material and Process Optimization (Intermediate)
Additive Manufacturing has become the leading edge manufacturing technology. Today Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) is progressing toward manufacturing functional parts in various industries. In order to take full advantage of MAM, new material development and process optimization are imperative. Current materials are based on the existing wrought, cast, powder metallurgy, and weld materials that may not be suitable for MAM, as they clearly do not produce the same structure in meso scale and cause uncertainty in mechanical properties similar to those in welding. This makes the MAM products vulnerable in critical components leading to extensive and costly testing and qualification regimen. For rapid growth of MAM industry it is necessary to design new AM materials that respond better to the processing methods yet have superior mechanical properties than current wrought, cast, or P/M materials. This presentation will discuss the current status of conventional alloy development techniques for this very rapidly growing industry and lay out a simple, inexpensive, yet comprehensive test and qualification program for new material and corresponding MAM process development and optimization. This presentation will provide step by step methodology for new and existing material and process development protocol for Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) as well as Directed Energy Deposition (DED) methods of MAM. The methodology will be demonstrated by using conventional 316 stainless steel in PBF-LB process, and its potential will be supported by examining literature and current experimental data on other materials such as Ti-6Al-4V, Ni alloys 625 and 718 for both PBF and DED processes.
- Understand the differences between AM processing and conventional manufacturing and develop analytical techniques for new AM materials for superior performance
- Conceptualize new materials for AM processing and performance enhancement
- Learn the steps for material development, process optimization and cost effective methods to control AM processes
Global Technical Director, Metals Technology
2:00 PM – 2:25 PM
Optimizing HIP and Printing Parameters for PBF Ti-6Al-4V (Intermediate)
Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is widely used today to eliminate internal defects in Ti-6Al-4V produced by powder bed fusion. The HIP process will improve the ductility and especially the fatigue properties of the material. In some cases the strength of PBF Ti-6Al-4V is reduced by the HIP:ing due to coarsening of the very fine as-printed microstructure due to the elevated temperature during the HIP process. This drop in strength can be a problem in some cases.
This presentation presents an investigation of HIP parameters for EBM Ti-6Al-4V performed by Arcam AB and Quintus Technologies AB with the aim to maximize the strength of HIP:ed EBM Ti-6Al-4V. A low HIP temperature of 800°C gives the highest strength and is also enough to eliminate all internal defects. By printing material with intentionally induced porosity generated by printing with a larger line off-set than normally used combined with an optimized HIP cycle, the highest strength can be obtained.
- Understand hot isostatic pressing better
- Know which HIP parameters to use for PBF Ti64
- Understand the densification during HIP better
Quintus Technologies LLC
2:30 PM – 2:55 PM
Accelerating Innovation Through Collaboration (Intermediate)
Cincinnati Incorporated has collaborated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory MDF to create BAAM, the Big Area Additive Manufacturing system. The collaboration process was exciting and much faster than the way CI traditionally developed machines. The presentation is the story of the collaboration. The time line starts with a signing of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement in February of 2014 and how the collaboration was printing parts by May of 2014.
The collaboration has resulted in a lot of key developments:
- Strati, the first 3D printed car – the 6 month journey using co-creation and the power of collaboration to print a working automobile.
- The ORNL Shelby Cobra demonstrating BAAM printing, new finishing technologies and remote wireless power charging
- AMIE – Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy – the 3D printed house and Printed Utility Vehicle intended to get us to think differently about how we generate and distribute energy.
- US Army Demonstrator – 1952 Jeep Body
- Rocket Crafters – DARPA Hybrid Rocket Fuel Printing
- Boeing/NAVAIR high temperature tooling material collaboration
- TPI Wind Blade Mold
- Alliance MG Boat Mold
- Design Miami Pavilion made from Compostable PLA with Bamboo Fiber Reinforcing
The breadth and depth of applications for the BAAM have been interesting and educational.
The real takeaway is in the collaboration process fostered by the partnership has done things faster than we could have ever dreamed they would before we got into the process.
- Understand the importance of networking and collaboration to accelerating the innovation process and be energized to network at RAPID.
- Critically look at each technology and application and think could this be done in a whole new way?
- Have a strong feeling about the capabilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory MDF and CI and also understand the capability of BAAM technology to do large projects.
Additive Manufacturing Product and Sales Manager
3:00 PM – 3:25 PM
Practical Solutions for Your Sand Castings (Novice)
In today’s competitive casting market, there are a multiple ways to reduce your costs and lead times. Additive Manufacturing is an awesome tool if you know when, where and how to apply this technology. This presentation will review projects that include castings that weigh less than 1 pound to more than 5,000 pounds. The foundry industry has been very successfully using 3D printed sand to produce their aluminum, iron and steel castings. Learn where they have been successful so that you are able to apply what they have done to your own business. Failures have the potential to be very expensive. A few best practices will be reviewed to help you reduce the chance of this happening at your facility. We have worked with many foundries in North America helping them adjust and adapt to using 3D printed sand. The projects shown will help users grab the low hanging fruit as they venture into using 3D printed sand.
- Implement successful usage 3D sand printing within their facility.
- Understand how other foundries are using 3D sand printing
Journeyman Patternmaker – Customer Care & A.M. Manager
Hoosier Pattern Inc.